Polyethylene is one of thermoplastic polymer and the oldest family initially showed only low-density development and generating high-density, linear medium density polyethylene to three new species were added to the family.
Polyethylene is widely used today rather. Addition of new species, namely improvement of polyethylene from toys, household goods up to the many bags of cans are used in the field.
Durability of polyethylene, strong variation, with the advantage of easy workability and dielectric properties are used as very common nowadays.
Ethylene; Low and High Density Polyethylene and Ethylene Oxide vinyl chloride mono er hand for the Pure Propylene, Polypropylene plant, Normal Propylene; acrylonitrile plant, raw gas and hydrogen in the Aromatics Plant Oil kullanılmaktadır.Aromatik for Carbon Black in hand, and Butadiene Butane mixture with C
2. POLYETHYLENE OF HISTORY
Polymerisation reaction of ethylene, chemical products company in 1930, Imperial Chemical Industries 7ngiliz chance at found. But in the beginning, about 2000 occur under barlık very high pressures of these reactions can be easily applied technology to make the required years. Before long, mechanical and electrical properties to become aware of the polyethylene, began to be used for many different applications. Then, 1950 in li chemist K. Ziegler, under low pressure has developed a polymer reaction update. This method 1970's life in all types of expanded polyethylene, so that date from polyethylene, the world-wide has become the most widely used plastics. Garbage bags, dating back to the electrical insulation was used in a wide variety of areas.
3. POLYETHYLENE MATERIALS
Polyethylene by white, semi-permeable, and highly durable polymer that can be softened. Sold on the market, especially the transparent one. Transparency relates to the degree of intensity. As density increases, the transparency increases. According to the intensity in the market for polyethylene, low density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), medium density polyethylene (OYPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE). In each of the four types of polyethylene and ethylene monomer, polymer molecules of different structures are emerging. Polymer molecules are composed of the chain molecules shaped macro provides a variety of different branching of the polyethylene case. For example, LLDPE at no branch will be less, HDPE 'a little bit more, OYPE at is greater. LDPE at branch level is maximum. Polymer properties that one is long or short Dal etkiler.Yoğunluk hardness and strength increases, so transparency increases, the softening temperature increases. This type of liquid to gas and also becomes difficult to affect.
Polyethylene is a polymer of participation. Ethylene, polymer and becomes a catalyst and polyethylene polimerlesmeyi initiator occurs. NCH
4. BASIC PROPERTIES OF POLYETHYLENE MATERIAL
• Lightness and Ease of Use
Materials and furnishings during syllogism ease of mobility, an important advantage compared to alternative materials.
Resistance to ground movement, especially in infrastructure work in earthquake zones should be taken into account is the most important issues. In 1999 after an earthquake in our country yasananbüyük "natural gas service lines" outside the lines all the infrastructure was damaged. This is because only the natural gas pipeline was to have been decorated with polyethylene pipes. The renovation work after the earthquake in this area all 7ller Bank of drinking water infrastructure using pipes made of polyethylene PE100.
• Good Source Properties
Especially combined with electro-fusion or received resource supply points in PE pipeline is extremely robust tool, tests of the source point in building a more robust seamless pipe regions indicate.
• joints under pressure and breaking out of the lack of
Excellent source of properties joints out / are preventing rupture or leak.
• Crazing Resistance of Kars to
• Zero corrosion
• Chemical Resistance Impact of the Kars
PE materials with different chemical resistance against the "Project and Technical-Chemicals" section are given.
• low friction
5. Make the INGREDIENTS FOR GOOD SOLID POLYETHYLENE of
GOOD properties of polyethylene make some effects and resistance to increase resistance against being melted down under pressure by the method of mixing chemicals into polyethylene is added.
5.1. Oxidation PREVENTIVES
This type of chemical structure is generally fent as primary and secondary antioxidant is divided into two groups. In other words, radical extinguishers Primary oksidantlar polyethylene macromolecules during the heating and the resulting fragmentation of the radicals are neutralized, prevents proliferation. Secondary antioxidants in an oxygenated environment degradation of the polyethylene formed with parts and hidrosiperoksitleri More prevents decay. These two long-term degradation of polyethylene oksidantlar ensures against resistant.
5.2. UV STABILITY PROVIDERS
Solar ultraviolet light cut all kinds of carbon - carbon bond, and this will impact causes bond breaking weaken over time. This is to move to the front of the sun into the effect of polyethylene polyethylene chemical substances that are placed before absorption. These chemicals, UV absorber and UV to quencher is collected in two groups.
5.3. KAY AND BLOCK PREVENTIVES Builder
Slider as fatty acids and amines, as a preventive BLOCK 90% of inorganic compounds containing silicon dioxide on are used. Contribution of grain size distribution of preventive BLOCKS and oil absorption of matter is very important. Slider is used in conjunction with blocks fat absorption is important in preventive.
6. TECHNIQUES OF OPERATION OF POLYETHYLENE
Polyethylene plastic processing industry, the materials are the most common processing area.
• Film extrusion
• metal extrusion coating of paper
• Blow molding
• Rotational molding hands
• Injection molding
• Powder coatings
• Wire and cable is manufactured
• Pipe hose manufacturing
• Foam film manufacturing
• Masterbeç manufacturing
7. LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE
7.1. PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
In an autoclave or tubular LDPE tubular reactor, ethylene monomerlerinin 1200 to 3000 atm pressure and 130 to 350 ° C temperature, the organic peroxide is obtained with the help of polimerizasyonundan. O as catalyst in high pressure process
7.2. LDPE OF PRODUCTION PROCESS
High-pressure process for producing LDPE and peroxide and oxygen is used kabbalists. Figure 1 'LDPE' s production process can be seen. Polyethylene required to produce pure ethylene, pumps 150 MPa with the help of a pressing 190 º C in the tubular reactor is fed. At the same time the reactor is done to add to the catalyst. A reaction occurs in solution. Here comes the mixture separatörüne high pressure. Here, as low pressure polyethylene ethylene reactions have suffered is being separatörüne way, do not react to be fed back into the system before ethylene compressor, then is sent to the tubular reactor. separatöründen low pressure resulting product is fed ekstrudera. The products Ekstruderda mold, is cooled after kurutular ago.
7.3. LDPE OF PROPERTIES
Specific Weight 0.91 to 0.93 g / cm
4 'lerde synthetic rubber plant and also to foreign markets for the Tupras Yarımca verilmektedir.2 = CH2 (CH2 - CH2) n (Catalysts O2, temperature, pressure) of carbon in the polyethylene chain trans tab düzenlenmiştir. Polyethylene, a solvent-soluble and is cooled and crystallized single - crystals are obtained. Polymer chain determines the degree of branch if no crystal. Molecules in the crystal structure at Dal usually is more than you. Increases in polymer crystallinity increases hardness, mechanical and chemical properties will recover and increase resistance to liquid and gas. Melting index is inversely proportional to molecular weight. HDPE 'hardness and durability of the more leptin, melting flow index, or more düşüktür.2 peroxide kullanılır.3
Elasticity module from 0.1 to 0.26
Melting Point ° C from 98 to 120
Resistance Force 4.1 to 1.6
7.4. USE AREAS
• Agır service bags
• Greenhouse cover
• Packaging film
• Cable for cases
• Household goods, toys
• Pipe, hose, tube, bottle, cloth and metal coatings, rotations, molding materials
• All kinds of stress and shrink film
• Bags, napkin in the field for the plastic bag is used.
7.5. LDPE CONSUMPTION
Extrusion coating and film applications with LDPE LLDPE 's better is being used by mixing LDPE processability obtained due' eat a little reduction in the demand is observed.
Extrusion coating, blow molding and coating, wire and cable coatings used in the traditional market, such as LDPE, LLDPE with high process capability and clarity of resistance to this market has more to enter. Final product distribution of consumption in Figure 3 'is mis te data.
LDPE basis for field use, application and film forming packaging sector% of consumption is a 74'lük. Polyethylene film industry will continue to grow and the demand for LLDPE 's use of LDPE is mixed with will support this growth.
8. HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE
High-density polyethylene to break, to break and parts of them as being lost resistance against high temperature and pressure to mold is needed.
8.1. PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
HDPE, titanium tetrachloride catalysts (Ziegler - Nata catalyst) and organometallic catalyst with the help of 10 to 20 atm pressure and 70 - 80 ° C temperature to obtain the results of ethylene polymerization. HDPE, low pressure in the working processes are manufactured. HDPE, has a branched structure.
8.2. HDPE OF PRODUCTION PROCESS
Low-pressure process to produce HDPE and ethylene as feed supply must be made with komonomer. Figure 2 at low pressure in the HDPE production process can be seen. Union Carbide's Unipol process is used. Pure ethylene with 1 - komonomeri liquid butane is fed to the reactor bed. At the same time the reactor is fed to the catalyst. Reactor at 100 º C at 690 kPa pressure from 2100 kPa 'interests. Not react in the fluid bed reactor with ethylene ago compressor suitable temperature and then pressed and cooled to come back to whether the system is fed. Reacting the resulting gas from the reactor product gas - the lock chamber will be installed on the heels. Here comes the product separator. Separators, products to be stored will be cleaned with nitrogen. The mean duration of stay of polymer in the reactor 3 to 5 are sold.
8.3. HDPE OF PROPERTIES
Specific Gravity 0.94 to 0.97 g / cm
Modules of elasticity from 0.41 to 1.24
Melting Point ° C 127 to 137
Based on Force 21 to 38
8.4. USE AREAS
• Household goods, toys
• Packaging film
• Pipes (rigid pipes, detergent and cosmetic bottle (opaque)), water, gas cans to
• Sheets, paper, fabric and metal coating materials in the rotational molding
• Vest type bags, plastic bags, Laminating, File bags
• Pressure water pipe, gas and sewerage
• Water distribution, sewerage, irrigation pipes in the areas of distribution network is used.
8.5. HDPE CONSUMPTION
The largest development in the technology of HDPE muti-stage reactors durability and is manufactured using a bimodal HMW HDPE developing at has. This type of film and blow molding applications to receive a share of LDPE and LLDPE market has been highly successful. Figure 4 Distribution of the final product use 'te was given. With a capacity of less than 5 liters bottle manufacturing of blow molding applications, about 40% of HDPE demand 'lık part has. These containers, detergents, liquid soap, shampoo, such as milk bottle has a wide range of use. Some areas the use of recycled polyethylene increased 1 Quality HDPE 'to limit the use of milk and fruit juice although growth will continue to use for the HDPE is estimated.
9. LINEAR LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE
9.1. PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
Recently, using low-pressure autoclave and tubular reactors are produced by LLDPE. LLDPE 's features LDPE from is quite different. Resistance to stress and strain LDPE what higher than, impact resistance is better. Heat resistance 15 ° C higher, processing more difficult. However, clarity, brightness and worse, is lower than the melting power. Production is carried out in the gas phase LLDPE process, the resulting resin, ethylene - is alfaolefin copolymer and has a linear structure. LLDPE at branch processing is not actually a lot of space in the machine direction is up. Shooting in the direction perpendicular to the elongation is low. While LLDPE grass, as hekzen and butene copolymer produced with.
9.2. ISLE TECHNOLOGY
LDPE and LLDPE processing techniques and processing techniques are the same, the press is only shoulder LLDPE LDPE request ekstruderlarında is not conventional. Therefore in LDPE LLDPE 40% are mixed in proportions of disengaging. LLDPE 'ni alone to process these products have been designed according to the need to use the new extruder.
9.3. USE AREAS
• Film extrusion ürü, garbage bags, agricultural-purpose heavy-duty bags, canvas, grocery bags, textile product packaging
• Injection molding products, household goods, toys production, stationery, electronics industry fittings
• Rotary molding products, various size containers, trash bins, portable Booths
• Blow molding products with various volume bottles, water closes with
9.4. LLDPE CONSUMPTION
Eastern Europe also needs LLDPE shows a rapid increase in recent years. Especially LDPE 'la use and in some cases, LLDPE' s preference to increased consumption.
LLDPE 's approximately 76% of' sI packaging packaging applications are being consumed.
LLDPE, LDPE film applications quickly 's are replaced. LLDPE 's
high flexibility, low temperature heat in the resistance against the high-purity
degree of clarity and high optical transmittance and sees a lot of interest.